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Bahamas, The

Did you know: 

Robert Antoni, born in The Bahamas in 1958, was winner of the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize Best First Book award with his novel, Divina Trace, in 1992.

The country is a coral archipelago of about 700 islands and more than 2,000 cays and rocks.

Key facts

Joined Commonwealth: 
377,000 (2013)
–0.3% p.a. 1990–2013
world ranking 51
Official language: 
GMT minus 5hr
Bahamian dollar (B$)


13,939 sq km
Capital city: 
Population density (per sq. km): 


The Commonwealth of The Bahamas is a coral archipelago of around 700 islands and more than 2,000 rocks and cays in the West Atlantic south-east of the coast of Florida, USA, and north­east of Cuba. It straddles the Tropic of Cancer and stretches 970 km.

Main towns: 

Nassau (capital, pop. 241,200 in 2010) on New Providence; Freeport (44,300), West End (13,100) and High Rock (3,900) on Grand Bahama; Cooper’s Town (9,300) and Marsh Harbour (5,800) on Abaco; Freetown (4,300) and Spanish Wells (1,800) on Eleuthera; Andros Town (2,300) on Andros; and Clarence Town (1,700) on Long Island.


The total road system extends to some 2,700 km, about 60 per cent of it paved. There are almost 1,000 km of roads on New Providence (some of which are privately owned), 209 km of roads on Eleuthera, 156 km on Grand Bahama, and more than 885 km on the Out Islands.

Main ports are Nassau (New Providence), Freeport (Grand Bahama) and Matthew Town (Inagua). The Out Islands are served by a mail boat that leaves Nassau several times a week.

The principal airports are Lynden Pindling International (16 km west of Nasau) and Freeport International (5 km from Freeport), and some 50 airports or airstrips in all.

International relations: 

The Bahamas is a member of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, Association of Caribbean States, Caribbean Community (though not the CARICOM Single Market and Economy), Non-Aligned Movement, Organization of American States and United Nations.


About 30 islands are inhabited, the most important of which are New Providence, in the middle of the group, where the capital Nassau is situated, and Grand Bahama, the northernmost, with the city of Freeport. The other islands are known collectively as the Family Islands or Out Islands. The islands lie on a submarine shelf which rises steeply from deep waters in the east; to the west lie the shallow waters of the Great Bahama Bank. The islands, built of coralline limestone to an undersea depth of about 1,500 metres, are low-lying. The highest, Cat Island, rises to 62 metres at Mount Alvernia; Grand Bahama barely reaches 12 metres. The limestone rock of the islands is permeable and there are no streams. The water supply is taken from wells or collected from rainwater.


The climate is cooler than other countries in the Caribbean region but still pleasantly mild in winter. Winter temperatures average 21°C, summer temperatures 30°C. Most of the rain (averaging 1,100 mm p.a.) falls in May–June and September–October and there are frequent thunderstorms in summer. The Bahamas islands are subject to hurricanes during June–November.


The most significant environmental issues are coral reef decay and solid waste disposal.


The soil is thin, and generally infertile, but cultivation has produced exotic flowers (as well as subtropical fruit and vegetables) on the more developed islands. Some islands have large areas of pine forests. Forest covers 51 per cent of the land area and there was no significant loss of forest cover during 1990–2011.


Animal life is restricted to small species, such as agouti, frogs, iguana and bats. The Inagua National Park on Great Inagua Island is the home of more than 50,000 flamingos, the largest flock in the world and The Bahamas’ national bird.